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I sawed some 1/2" thick boards on the saw mill that I installed between the joists. These boards are only there to hold the insulation, so they won't carry a lot of weight.
The insulation was added (6"), and a plastic membrane was mounted on top. I am not quite sure that it is needed since there will not be much human activity in the barn to breathe out humidity, and besides it also shields the insulation a bit while I am working on the floor itself.
The floor boards are 1 3/4" thick and are joined by means of a loose tongue.
I have finally gotten around to using my Veritas BU jointer that I bought some years ago at a great price. I use it to joint the edges of the boards before I make the groove for the tongue.
The upper corner is planed off with two swipes of the block plane, so it is just a tiny bevel that will keep splintering to a minimum.
The groove is made with an electric router. A year ago I finally had it with my old router and forked out some real cash and got myself a more professional Makita router. That thing is so much better than the old one, it is easier to hold, it can actually retain the cutter in the desired position and it does a quick job of making a groove.
Due to the width of the boards I am installing them with nails through the top instead of using hidden nails or screws.
I would have liked to use headless nails like I used for the porch, but those are not available in 5.5" so that is why I am using regular nails. They look a bit crude, but it is a barn after all.
They are mounted 5/4" form the sides of each board, and if the board is very wide I also put a nail in the middle as well. To keep the heads aligned, I am using a piece of string to mark out the position.
Olav stopped by today and gave me a hand, and also took some pictures. So all the pictures of today are by the courtesy of Olav.
The three larger windows will be at the ground floor, and the two smaller windows will be for the attic. One in each gable.
For once this was a project that could benefit from my shaper. That thing is a beast when it comes to making large rabbets and long pieces of mouldings.
Traditionally frames are made with mouldings on the stiles and none on the rails. But I wanted to have mouldings all the way around.
I dovetailed the frames together, and in order for the moulding to flow around the corner I used a mitered dovetail for the outermost part of the frame.
The technique isn't terribly hard to learn or do, so it went together fairly well. My biggest challenges were that the stock was thick, but a bit of concentration during sawing helps a lot.
During the last couple of days I have been trying to make the window casements. There will be a total of 8 casements, so in order to make some progress, I am making it mainly as a power tool build.
The stock for the window casements are larch that I milled two years ago. It was originally intended to become a fence around the porch, but in the end we decided that a fence wasn't needed, so I could use them for this project instead.
I again used the shaper for making the rabbets and the mouldings. And this time I have tried to use it for making the bridle joints as well.
There is a special iron that is suitable for making tenons and the open mortises for the bridle joints. I have never used it before, because quite frankly it scares me a bit. The combination of the shaper and that blade is something that will eat a hand or an arm in an instant.
It is a interesting to note that when I have to make multiples, the machines are really fast despite the setting up can be a bit time consuming. A thing that is also interesting to note is the sometimes terrible amount of tear out left behind.
To be fair I think most of it can be traced to the wood. Larch is rather stiff, but it tears out easily.
The first window casement was assembled by means of drawbored dowels. The next one was just pegged after the glue had set. That route allowed me to put a clamp on the bridle joint which I think results in a better joint overall.
A project like this that requires a lot of pegs/dowels, is just what I have been longing for, because it gives me an opportunity to use my BLUM dowel plates. They are nothing short of impressive.
I tried to weigh the pros and cons of continuing or abandoning the project altogether. In the end I decided that instead of making a barrel for rum or brandy, I could make it for dog treats. Since they are not liquid, the barrel will work for that.
I had made a couple of ends/bottoms for the barrel out of spruce, and these were made into octagonals to fit the inside.
The hoops are made out of a piece of copper tube that was split down the middle using a hacksaw. After splitting , it was flattened on an anvil by means of a hammer. The hoop was riveted together using small pieces of copper wire from an old electrical cable as rivets.
Each hoop received a total of six rivets. five to hold the hoop together and one rivet for holding the eye that will allow the barrel to be attached to the collar of Bertha.
I had measured each hoop directly from the barrel, in such a way that it was a bit too small so I could rely on it to be stretched a bit and gain a good tight fit.
The hoop was first negotiated into place by tapping with a hammer on top of a piece of wood. Once it was level with the edge of the barrel, I switched to a drift wedge. A regular piece of flat bar would have worked equally well, but this was just at hand and had a perfect size for the job.
Normally I think the hoops are expected to stay put without any fixations, but I didn't want to take that risk with this project. I made four small rivets and attached each hoop with two of them.
Finally I sawed of the ends of the barrel down to the edge of the hoops and sanded the outside flush.
I didn't drill a hole for the dog treats yet, because I think a Forstner bit will be better than a regular metal drill bit like those we have out here. So I'll do that once I get home.
The barrel ended up being 6" high and 3 3/8" in diameter at the middle.
I spent some time to get them all a bit more uniform in thickness and then tried to reassemble the barrel.
It still wasn't as I wanted it. After some time fumbling with the hose clamps, it suddenly detonated between my hands.
None of the pieces were damaged, but I could see two staves that had significantly more of a bend than the rest of them. I decided that it was time to regroup the project by only using 8 staves instead of the original 10. This will mean that the volume of the barrel will be smaller, so I'll probably have to either make it a short walk with the dog, or just walk the dog myself without any company.
Regrouping meant that I had to alter the angle on the staves, but that was a quick job. I had a bit of a problem getting the barrel raised using the blue masking tape due to its unwillingness to stick to anything, so I upgraded to some duct tape.
I am fairly sure it isn't a traditional way of doing it, but it sure works great.
A hose clamp was mounted on each end, and the barrel looked OK.
I decided that I should make the barrel shorter due to its smaller diameter in order for it to look good.
I got the idea that if I kept the hose clamps on while I completed the work on the barrel, I could round and sand it also where the hoops would be attached. In the end I will saw off the part where the hose clamp has been.
The barrel was rounded and sanded. I measured the outside diameter of one end with a piece of copper wire, and used that to calculate the size of the corresponding bottom.
The oak has got a lot of cracks, so I was a bit uncertain if it would make an OK bottom. I sawed out a piece and marked a circle on it. Immediately after sawing the bottom out it broke in two.
Spruce might not be the classic choice for coopering, but on the other hand, a Newfoundland isn't a classic barrel bearing dog, so a swift decision was made to use spruce.
After filing the disc round, I used a chisel to chamfer the edges so it could eventually fit into the groove that I was going to make.
I tried to use my router plane instead of a croze, but it didn't work very well, so I guess I'll have to do a bit of tool making to proceed.
I haven't got any of those tools. But I have a lot of different tools and spare parts that can be used on board a ship. Some of those can often be used for other things.
Today I tried to use hose clamps for holding the barrel together before making the hoops.
Before I got to that part, I had made the last staves, and they were planed on the outside.
I planed the edges to an 18 degrees angle, so I would end up having 10 staves each with a total angle of 36 degrees.
This is where the challenges started.
At first I tried to hold the staves by hand inserting them in a ring that I had made from some old copper strands from an old electrical cable.
That didn't work.
The next attempt I tried to hold each stave in place using blue masking tape attached to the middle of the staves but with sufficient space between each so they could touch in the ends.
That wasn't a success.
Third attempt was to lay the staves closely together, so they touched at one end. Each stave was taped to its neighbour and finally put on an end and the last piece of tape held the stack together.
This seemed like the way to go.
I attached the copper wire ring, and made another one a bit smaller.
The assembly was rather flimsy, so I added another copper ring on the middle. That made it a bit more solid.
I found a couple of plastic cable tied and added those too. Then I removed the masking tape.
Getting the other end of the barrel closer together wasn't that easy. I was afraid to break the copper wire, and the cable ties weren't easy to tighten either.
That is when I decided to find some hose clamps.
At first I attached the hose clamps on the ends and tightened them up a bit. Then cam a larger model for the fat part of the barrel.
It started to look more like a barrel and less like a bunch of sticks held together with masking tape.
A thing that I noticed was that the individual staves didn't bend the same. I knew what the problem was, so there was no point in continuing with the hose clamps before I had fixed it.
The staves are not the same thickness.
I had gambled a bit that it probably wouldn't matter, but apparently it does matter.
Now I just have to find a way to make them a bit more uniform in thickness and then I can continue with the hose clamps.
On this pallet the two lower stretchers were made out of oak. The top of the pallet was some other type of hardwood that I haven't been able to identify yet.
Not surprisingly, I disassembled the pallet to save the wood.
The problem with the oak is that the nails had penetrated rather deeply into the wood.
There was something like 8" between the nail holes, so I tried to think of a small thing that could be made out of short pieces of oak.
There are of course many things that would fit in this category, but I decided that a small barrel similar to those depicted around the neck of a saint Bernard dog would be interesting to make.
Bertha will end up having the same size as a saint Bernard, so I see no reason why she shouldn't be able to have a small barrel of brandy fixed to her collar for taking a photo.
I have never tried my hands out on coopering, so this will be a journey into the unknown in that respect.
The diameter of the barrel will be such that I can make the ends from the oak as well, I am able to make a circular piece of 2.75"" in diameter. The barrel will be 7.25" in length and probably end up having a diameter on the middle of 3.75" That is if everything goes as planned.
I have read somewhere that if you split the wood for the staves, you can reduce the risk of the barrel starting to leak. This makes sense if you use some sort of ring porous wood. I think that oak is ring porous, so I am going to try to follow that advice.
After sawing my piece of oak into the lengths between the nail holes, I split the pieces using an axe.
After splitting I used my plane to flatten the individual staves a bit on the outside.
My first idea was to make them exactly the same thickness from the start, but I changed the approach and only flattened the outside and then I marked out the shape and used a hack saw to make the curved shape.
Once all the staves are done I'll try to plane them all to the same thickness.
So far I have experienced that splitting stock is not a guarantee for a flat piece of wood.
It might have something to do with the fact that the grain isn't the straightest on the wood that I have at hand.
Some of the staves that I had split also had cracks running the entire length down the middle, so far from all my staves could be used.
I am also beginning to suspect that there might be a reason for coopers to use special tools for their job, cause a regular smoothing plane with a scrub iron doesn't seem to be the most efficient tool so far for this project. (Not that such a thing has ever held me back)
Please take a look at the many different and great looking shelves that the participants made, and please vote for your 3 personal favourites.
I guess the more people that will vote and show their interest in the build, the likelier it is that Chris Wong will arrange another build off in the future.
After sawing them all off, I sanded the surface flush.
I measured out for the two holes for mounting the shelf and bored those too.
That was all the work that was required today.
For me the biggest obstacle isn't to build the stuff. It is to take a decent picture of it.
At home I would have hung the shelf on a door or some other wood clad surface, and I could have taken some pictures of it.
But out here I don't want to make any holes for temporary mounting of my shelf. I tried to make use some tape, but that didn't work well either.
In the end I tried to make a cyclic wall (I think that is the name) using a floor mat and taping the top if it to the wall.
I had to balance the shelf to get it to stand by itself, so the hooks are not hanging quite as they will when the shelf is really mounted.
I wanted to make some hooks for this shelf as well, and they are not hard to make with some very basic hand tools.
The hooks at home are made out of heavy copper wire. Out here I have access to bronze brazing rods that are 3 mm thick (1/8"). They will work just as fine, but they are a little bit harder to bend.
I placed two extension pieces from a regular 1/2" square ratchet/socket set in the vice. The distance between them were probably 1/2" or so.
I start by making the eye of the hook.
When that is done, I fold the hook end around the other extension piece and make sure to fold it a bit longer due to the tendency of the metal to spring back.
Once I had made a bunch of hooks I used some pliers to cut them free of the rod that I made them of.
The places that I cut were rounded using a needle file.
Before the glue up I marked the position of the individual pieces in relation to each other, and I drilled some pilot holes for the screws.
The shelf and the supports are fastened to the back piece by means of glue and screws.
The shelf is temporarily screwed to the supports to keep it in place while the glue dries. Once the glue is dry I will remove the visible screws and replace them with a small wooden peg.
The had a kerf sawn in each end before I mounted it, and a wedge is glued into it.
When I had everything glued up and only needed to screw in the two last screws for temporarily holding the support in position with the shelf, I decided that the support was a little bit out of square. I pressed at it but it didn't move. I very lightly tapped it with my hand, but it still didn't move.
Then I gave it a smart blow of the hand, and the support broke in two...
I guess the dowel was a tight fit.
The broken off piece was recovered and glued back. After cursing a bit I managed to get a couple of clamps on, and finally the last two screws were in place.
The biggest obstacle for me is to make nice curves with a panel saw or a hack saw.
After sketching about 10 different lay outs, I settled for two curves.
I flattened the back of the board for the supports, and then I marked the finished size out on the board regarding the length / height of the supports. And cross cut the pieces.
Next I used a divider to make some pleasing curves and I clamped the two supports together and tried my best to saw near the line.
The convex curve was fairly easy to do, I just had to remove the waste every once in a while, and then come back at another angle.
The concave curve was a bit more difficult, but a hacksaw can follow a curve if it isn't too tight, so it ended up OK.
A rasp would be great for cleaning up such curves, but I had to resort to a couple of files and some 60 grit emery paper.
After that I marked out for where I wanted the hole for the dowel to go. I sandwiched the supports between some sacrificial scraps of wood and clamped it all to the table of the drill press.
I found a 16 mm drill and drilled the holes in one motion.
I ripped a piece of wood some 3/4" square, to make a dowel. I tried to find a piece of wood with straight grain to make it easy for me during planing.
A sticker board was set up and I started by making an octagonal. After that I simply tried to turn the dowel for every stroke, and it quickly turned reasonably round.
The sticker board was not helping anymore, so I changed tactics and held the dowel in my hand. That worked for a while, but not very well.
Finally I clamped my plane upside down in the vice and used both hands to maneuver the dowel over the blade. That trick gave me a lot of control, and the dowel ended up very round.
Finally I sanded it to an even rounder shape and checked that it could enter the holes in the supports.
Since I had made mouldings on the sides of the strips to be used, a little more work than usual was involved.
Normally it is just a question of marking up some square lines and sawing and chiseling the waste out.
Here I had to make some miters too, in order for the moulding to flow around the corner.
A great tool for a task like that is a router plane, but it can also be done just using a chisel. So given my limited tool kit, that is how I did it.
I marked out the depth of the half lap from the front of the strips of wood. That way any inaccuracies will be on the back side where I can easily trim them away with a plane once the glue is dry.
The back piece was then glued together and left to dry.
For the shelf I wanted to make another moulding at the top of the front.
I changed the blade for a large beading, and the result was beyond my expectations. I immediately decided that I could make another beading on the front itself, so that the moulding would look like a 3/4 dowel.
This went OK, but not as good as the last. This is where proper grain orientation is important. the grain in the pallet sides are not completely consistent, so suddenly it was reversed and I had a little bit of tear out.
I then tried to make a smaller beading on the portion that was left, but that totally messed up for my. So I had to change the plane into a rabbet plane and make an attempt of cleaning the mess up.
I cut the shelf to length and managed to get the saw to jump out of the kerf and onto the part to keep. So I shifted the kerf and made the shelf 1/2" shorter.
Then I started thinking about if I could make something interesting for the ends of the shelf too. A beading always look nice, and perhaps this Stanley plane will work really fine going across the grain.
It doesn't work well across the grain, especially not on some softwood from a pallet. Again I had to resort to the solution of shortening the shelf to remove the remnants of the disaster.
Some people learn from mistakes, whether they are made by themselves or by others.
I generally fall into the group that people learn from..
Right now our ship is laid up and we haven't received new pallets for quite some time, but I found an old set of pallet sides that I could use.
The grain is not as straight as I would like it to be, but it will probably be OK.
First I sawed off the four hinges of the pallet frame, and then I decided on which piece was going to be the top and the supports and the back.
I ripped the stock and cut it to length with a bit extra.
Next I used my plane is a scrub set up, and dressed the boards to a bit over the final desired thickness. Once all of the boards had been scrub planed, I switched to the smoothing blade, and made the surface look nice.
My idea is to start with the back piece, then I can make the supports and the actual shelf while the glue of the back is drying.
So the next logical step was to plane down the sides and make sure that the 3 pieces for the back were of the same width.
They were then crosscut and I tried to establish how I wanted them to end up being oriented on the finished shelf.
I clamped up something like a sticker board, and using my Stanley No 50 combination plane I made mouldings on the edges of each boards.
The next task is to make the joinery for the back and assemble that.
Originally I wanted this piece to be in the total height of the plane plus a bit more for the fence part, but since I didn't bring enough beech with me, I had to try to make it some other way.
The fence had to go so far in that it would cover the forward corner of the blade at all times. I also wanted it to cover the entire escapement hole.
I measured those two distances and found out that I had to make a 3/4" rabbet that was 3/16" deep.
Olav was so kind as to give me a Stanley No 50 combination plane. This plane should be able to make rabbets, dadoes, tongues and grooves plus mouldings.
Therefore I had left my trusted grooving plane and moving fillister plane at home.
I read the instruction manual and got the plane set up to work as a rabbet plane. The depth of cut was harder to adjust than I had expected, but the rabbet ended up looking OK. I guess that beech is a fairly hard wood to work with a plane. At least I am not used to working with it.
Once the rabbet was complete, the fence was glued to the body of the plane. While the glue dried, I worked a bit on the wedge. The fat part of that received a semicircular shape. I also trimmed the thin end so it would not protrude past the rear fence when inserted.
When the glue had dried I drilled the escapement of the fence. Some work with a file, chisel and sandpaper resulted in an escapement that looked just right to me.
I couldn't resist the urge to test cutting a moulding with the plane. I set up the plane and in very short time I had a nice crisp looking moulding added to the rear fence. Since I had so much fun doing this, I quickly decided that the front of the rear fence and the forward fence would benefit from having a similar moulding. I think it makes the plane look a bit more finished.
The ends of the plane were squared off using a saw and the marks were removed with a file and some sandpaper.
All edges were chamfered slightly and MMXVII (2017) was chiseled onto the side of the plane.
I tested it, and it works better than I had ever imagined. A thin shaving will result in a tightly coiled spill some 3/16" at the fat end.
I intend to use my spill plane as a stationary plane. I think it will be easier to make some sort of arrangement that will catch all the spills that way, compared to if the work piece is stationary and the plane is moved back and forth.
This is the first real plane that I have ever made, and I think it has been an interesting project. The dimensions don't matter much, as long as they will fit the blade you plan on using. The body could be made from whatever wood you happen to have at hand, but a hard dense wood will surely hold up to more use than if you made the plane out of balsa wood.
I am tempted to make another plane like it, to give away as a present. In my opinion it would make a really fine and personal gift to someone who uses a wood burning stove.
Once my boys get over the fact that there are no secret compartments in the plane, I am sure they will enjoy making spills in the workshop with me. If that happens I will conclude that the project has been a success.
There are a few places with rust pitting, but nothing more than what can be ground away.
I think the vinegar I used was a bit weak compared to what I have used at home, but it got the job done all right.
The blank was first planed flat and square on two reference surfaces that would then be used for laying out the various lines.
For the body I have relied heavily on this article by Darrel LaRU. As Kari Hultman discovered, there is a small thing that is not mentioned in the article, namely that the blade shouldn't sit parallel with the bottom of the plane.
Armed with all this excellent information, I marked out an angle of 60 degrees and one of 10 degrees. The 60 degrees would work fine since my blade is somewhat wider than the blade used by Darrel LaRu. The 10 degrees frog angle would allow me to make a screw up and still stay in the ball park.
In order to find the angles I resorted to some good old trusted mathematics and used a tangential function of a calculator. I did this mainly because it is easy and it was faster than going all the way up to the bridge and borrow a drafting angle.
Making the cut out for the blade was done using a hacksaw (as usual) and some chisels. I ended up using a file to smooth out the bottom so it was as flat as I could get it.
The thing to aim for is that the two corners of the blade are parallel with the top of the plane body. I think that I could have made my cut out a little bit deeper, as that would have allowed me to advance the blade a bit more without getting a thick shaving. Instead I'll have to move the outside fence in a bit on the body. But that is OK with me. The function will still be the same.
After making a wedge to fit the angle, I drilled the escapement hole. I used a 20 mm drill (a bit more than 3/4"). I used the large drill press for that operation.
I ripped a piece of beech to make the back fence. This fence will cover the hole for the blade, and it will also hold the wedge. I just planed one face and one edge of this piece, and mounted it temporarily with the help of a couple of clamps to test the plane.
After the test I marked out the position of the fence and glued it in place.
I like it best when wooden planes are glued together. I may regret that if I have to make some serious adjustment later on, but I think it will look fine.
I am following a bit of the same principles when I am building a small chest out here. I try to make most of the inaccuracies to the outside, and then once all is complete I can square it up and make it look nice.
I have decided that I want to replicate the shelf that I made for my 9th grade sloyd exam. It is a small shelf intended to be mounted in a kitchen, with a dowel beneath it for holding a towel or holding a set of hooks that can be used for hanging various utensils.
The overall dimensions of my shelf will be pretty much like the old one that I made. Back then we had 3 hours to complete the build as far as I remember, but we were supplied with processed stock, so basically we only had to do the joinery.
I quickly scribbled down the measurements of the original before going to sea, so I have those to go out from.
This time I have to do stock preparation too, and I figured that I could perhaps use my new Stanley combination plane to make some decorative moulding as well.
As a small challenge to myself I think I will try to see if I can complete the build without using any metal fasteners.
I might try to make a sliding dovetail for the corners to attach to the underside of the shelf.
The corners and the backside of the shelf will then be glued to the back piece. I can then add a few pegs to reinforce it.
The dowel will be wedged into place.
My overall plan of action is to find a decent set of pallet sides during the coming week for the stock.
Come Saturday the 28th, I'll start with crosscutting the shelf to the approximate length, and the set of corners. The dowel will probably be ripped from the shelf piece.
The parts of the back piece will be made from the same length of wood, and I'll rip it to the correct width.
Next there will be some planing to do. The shelf and the corners are approximately 5/8" thick, and the parts of the back piece are 3/8". The dowel too is 5/8".
I am toying with the idea of decorating the back piece with a moulding along all the edges. I'll probably have to make a bit of testing first though.
If I choose to make mouldings, the back piece will be a little more difficult to assemble.Instead of a regular half lap joint with square cuts, it will require the corners to be cut of in a 45 degree angle, so allow the moulding to follow the side around the corner.
If you haven't already signed up for participation it this event, there is still time to do so.
The requirements for entering are very accommodating:
-You have to build the piece in the weekend of January 28/29.
-You decide what you want to build.
-You decide how you want to build it (hand tools, power tools, genetically modifying a plant to grow into the shape of a shelf, carve a shelf out of a rock etc.)
-Share the process online via social media (#WSBO), blog, and/or forum.
- There is no registration fee, and the WSBO is open to all inhabitants on this planet. So whether you live in Andorra, Zimbabwe or in a place that starts with a letter in between - you can participate.
Please check in on the page of Chris Wong and see the full details.
My boys would really appreciate a plane like that in the shop that they could play with and make shavings for a purpose.
One time I bought a large box of old wooden planes. It wasn't as nice as it looked on the pictures, and I didn't really need those planes. I can't even remember why I thought it was a sensible deal at that time. But that box at least contained a couple of extra old plane blades.
I found an old Ward blade that didn't have a chipbreaker, and I figured that it would make a fine blade for a future spill plane.
I also found a nice chunk of beech that Brian Eve gave to me during the Danish Chairbuilding Extravaganza this year. I brought both the blade and a piece of the beech with me this time with the intention of building a spill plane.
There are several different methods that will work for removing rust from e.g. a blade. Previously I have used sulfuric acid out here, because I wanted the job to be quick, but this time I am not in a hurry, so I have switched to the less aggressive household vinegar instead.
I once used that at home, and it works perfectly.
My setup is an old plastic container which will hold the blade, and then I simply poured vinegar in until it covered the blade.
Tomorrow the blade should be clean from rust if all goes as planned.