Chisels and gouges just turn up from nowhere with sadly abused handles mashed on the end, split down the centre or with short grain that split off a chunk from the side. I seem to accumulate these waifs and strays on a regular basis and unless I do something with them they quickly become a waste of space. For the main part all are repairable though and rarely is the steel beyond working with. Handles on the other hand may seem more questionable and problematic. Here is a gouge we restored for cope cutting and carving with. The steel aspect came quickly back to working condition, but the handle!!???
Step one is to remove the poor split to a flat surface and this we do with a good sharp #4 smoother. It must be dead flat to make a good mating surface with an add-on piece of the same wood. In this case the handle is ash; it could have been beech or box. These three woods are the most commonly used of all handle woods here in the UK. For this repair I used another chisel handle in ash beyond such repair. Planing a second dead flat surface over the existing split gave me a good match in wood and so I glued the pieces in the vise, clamped them on the outer edges to guarantee good seating and meeting and left them overnight for the glue to set up.
I cut away the bulk of the waste parallel to the width and opposite side fot eh gouge handle and also to length. Now I must round the handle. this one is easy because it’s not barrel shaped like some handles are.
This work takes about 20 minutes all in all.
After all the shaping and sanding was done I added in the cut lines that score the circumferance of the handle. I first used a knife to get the lines to meet and then deepened them with a fine Zona model saw.
The post Upcycle Chisel Handles For a Fully Functional Tool appeared first on Paul Sellers' Blog.
As I mentioned in my post on Monday, I had a great time at the Lie-Nielsen Tool Event hanging out with Jeff Miller and everyone. But as soon as I walked in the door I made a bee-line right over to the bench where Scott Meek had his hand planes set up and on display.
— Scott Meek (@SMeekWoodworks) April 12, 2014
I’m just going to go ahead and say it, Scott’s planes are absolutely gorgeous! They’re so well made, their fit and feel is amazing and the stock Scott uses is so beautiful it’s hard to believe they’re an actual tool and not an ornament (although we did half-jokingly point out how much easier it would be to hang one them on a wall for decoration versus the LN metal-bodied planes.)
For a lot of woodworkers who are first delving into the world of handplanes, wooden bodied planes are both a mystery and maybe even a little intimidating. Unlike the vast majority of metal-bodied planes there is no mechanical adjuster for positioning the blade. It’s all about tapping them in place with a mallet and learning how to set the wedge (two tasks I still struggle with!)
But aside from the steep learning curve on proper blade adjustment (which is less steep than I’m making it out to be and more about just practicing) wooden bodied planes are fantastic tools. My two favorite characteristics of using one is first, the immediate tactile feedback you get while planing.
What do I mean? A wooden bodied plane transfers the feeling of the wood being milled directly to your hands. You know immediately if you need to alter your depth of cut or even the angle of attack by the “feel” of the surface and how the plane is reacting to it.
Unlike a heavier metal bodied plane that gives you the advantage of mass to barrel through most situations, a wooden bodied plane is almost an extension of your fingertips. Giving you that immediate feedback on what you might need to do to get the result you desire.
My second favorite characteristic has everything to do with their weight. Depending on the stock itself, in almost every situation, wooden bodied planes will be lighter and easier to hold versus a comparable metal-bodied plane. This is a big reason for all that immediate feedback, but also it’s why you can work longer with the wooden bodied planes and not feel like you need a rub down at the end of the day.
Don’t take my word for it though, if you have an opportunity try one out for yourself. I think you might agree the wooden bodied planes are a nice way to go.
If you’re not familiar with Scott’s planes, checkout his website at www.scottmeekwoodworks.com.
There you’ll see the complete line of planes he builds and sells to interested woodworkers, and you’ll also find some other great options for plane making including online classes taught by Scott himself.
If you don’t have the time to take a class, consider picking up his recent DVD “Make a Wooden Smoothing Plane”.
Did I ever tell you about the time Scott and I were in a car and he told me about this crazy idea he had for starting a wooden hand plane business? I knew I should’ve offered to purchase one of his first planes just to say I had an original before they became as cool as they are now!
Continuing last week’s post (read it here) on comparative design, I thought it might be fun to move to Chippendale style chairs. The great thing about American Chippendale chairs is there’s tremendous variety, yet few are direct translations of Chippendale’s designs. The chair to the left is a perfect example. Chippendale’s “The Gentleman’s and Cabinetmaker’s Director” features no ball and claw feet in the book, but they remained popular in […]
Speaking of joinery, Neil Cronk started an interesting woodworking exercise on Twitter. Towards the end of March, Neil decided, for reasons that remain unknown to me, to take on cutting a lock rabbet miter joint, which is usually made with a router table, using hand tools instead. He live-tweeted this project, and it was fun to watch.
As a sequel, Neil decided to take on the lapped gooseneck joint, also known as a kamatsugi. In addition, Chris Wong, Adam Maxwell, and Shannon Rogers decided to join in. I decided to give this a try because someone needed to cut this joint with Japanese tools.
There are a number of variants of this joint. I decided to try making the mechigaihozotsuki kamatsugi, which is distinguished by incorporating a stub tenon in the lower half of the joint. This is a diagram of this joint, taken from The Complete Japanese Joinery. It was used for joining large beams end-to-end.
I started by milling up a 2x2 piece of walnut and crosscutting it. Each piece was laid out and marked separately. This was traditional practice. Although some of the lines could be marked together, many times it was not practical to line up large beams for this task. In fact, sometimes the layout was done by different people, relying on their skill to lay the lines out accurately.
I worked on making the male piece first. The first cut was made along the grain, defining the bottom face of the gooseneck and the top face of the half-lap. With this cut, I realized that the 210 mm ryoba that I usually use for joinery cuts was a bit small for 2x2 pieces, and switched to a 240 mm ryoba.
The next two cuts define the head of the gooseneck.
A vertical cut is made on the underside of the male piece. I knew at this point that I had already made my first mistake, which was cutting on the wrong side of the line.
Two shallow cuts are made to define the sloped back side of the goose head.
And a chisel was used to chop out the waste.
Some more saw cuts, chopping, and paring finish off the underside tenon.
This finished off the male piece. To make the female piece, I started by sawing waste off to provide the half-lap.
Sawcuts were made to define the neck, and more chiseling defined the mortise in the area of the head.
You can barely see a faint line on the side wall that is clearly not perpendicular, This is to mark the slope of the face of the female piece that matches up with the slope of the back of the goose head. I used the line as a guide to angle my chisel for paring. I don’t think achieving a perfect fit here is important. Like dovetails, the mechanical advantage will be there even if the fit isn’t perfect.
The last step was to make saw cuts and some chopping to define the mortise on the bottom of this piece. I forgot to take a picture of this part.
Then came fitting. This took up quite a bit of time, partially due to lack of experience on my part, and partially because I had to figure out which face of the joint to pare back to achieve a better fit. Finally, I was able to achieve this.
The male piece is not completely seated, but at this point the two pieces are wedged so closely together that this joint will stay this way for a very long time, even though there isn’t any glue in this joint.
After planing, though, it looked really good, for a first try.
The gap on the lower half reflects my sawing on the wrong side of that line early on in the process. It represents a two-saw kerf error. But overall, this joint came together surprisingly well, given that I didn’t mark one piece off of the other, and that I didn’t knife any of my lines before starting to cut them. Total time: about 30 minutes to mark the pieces, 1-1/2 hours for the making of the pieces, and 30 minutes of final fitting.
If you’re interested in seeing more, go to Twitter and look for #HandJoinery. This was a lot of fun.
Jackie Chan. Chopsticks. Woodworking. What’s not to like?
VIDEO 9/15 of Joshua Farnsworth’s free hand cut dovetail video series shows how to clean up the tails with a chisel.
This is a very detailed tutorial designed to teach beginners how to become expert at dovetailing by hand. It is offered as a free resource to encourage the revival of traditional woodworking.
This detailed video series was inspired by a 5 day class that I took from Roy Underhill and Bill Anderson: world-renowned experts on traditional woodworking with hand tools.
Which traditional hand tools should you buy?
If you need advice on which hand tools to buy (and not buy), then definitely read my 13 category buying guide article: “Which Hand Tools Do You need for Traditional Woodworking?”
Shortcuts to Dovetail Videos 1-15:
- Part 1: “Arrange the Boards & Mark the Reference Faces”
- Part 2: “Square the Board Ends”
- Part 3: “Prepare the Layout”
- Part 4: “Lay out the Half Pins”
- Part 5: “Layout the Tails”
- Part 6: “Mark the Tail Angles”
- Part 7: “Cut the Tails”
- Part 8: “Remove the Tail Waste”
- Part 9: “Clean the Tails”
- Part 10: “Layout the Pins”
- Part 11: “Cut the Pins”
- Part 12: “Remove the Pin Waste”
- Part 13: “Clean the Pins”
- Part 14: “Join the Pins & Tails”
- Part 15: “Glue & Clamp the Dovetails”
Let’s say you have just finished a book on Latvian linden ((Tilia cordata) campaign furniture. You believe in the book but marketing tells you you might only sell 25 to 30 books. Using the traditional printing model, you can’t make money printing 30 books. Shipping alone eats up all your profits. Using their new specialty printer, our friends will be able to quickly print limited interest books in a cost effective manner.
I am personally looking forward to the possibility of a greatly expanded, limited interest catalog. Those of us interested in truly obscure topics will no longer have to depend on hastily written, inaccurate Wikipedia articles. We can now have hastily written and inaccurate books as well.
If it’s in print, it must be true.
After making a few pieces of basic items with nail and glue, one should go a step beyond and try some basic joinery, making housings, grooves and so on. While the end result might not look vastly different from the one made of nail and glue, it will be infinitely stronger and longer lasting. It would also mean ratcheting up skills.
So here is a step-by-step presentation on making a kitchen wall shelf with drawers.
|Step 1: Each piece has been measured, marked and cut to final dimensions.|
Cutting each piece and accurately is perhaps the most basic and the most difficult part of any project. Even slight imperfections cause problems in assembly and joint making. Measuring, marking and cutting, I have learnt, is not to be taken lightly.
|Step 2: The two pieces making up the sides have been clamped together and housings routed|
It is easier and more accurate to cut housings with both pieces held together. This reduces if not eliminates all chance of misalignment. I usually cut housings with a router and a half inch mortising bit with a bearing on top.
|Step 3: Three shelve pieces glued, screwed on and clamped|
Glue is enough to hold the shelves together for this small project but I decided to add screws as well from the side to make the whole thing more secure.
|Step 4: The screw holes hidden with wooden plugs|
Plugging screw holes is not essential but is my preference. Alternatively, screw holes could be countersunk and later hidden with a filler.
|Step 5: Strip of wood across top front attached with pocket-hole screws|
A strip across the front makes the whole frame extremely rigid and prevents racking. The strip can be attached by various means including dowels, nails and so on. I have used pocket-hole screws for convenience and strength.
|Step 6: Top piece has been cut to size and its edges chamfered|
The edges of the top could be left crisp and sharp or treated. Different edge treatments result in varied looks. I have merely chamfered the edges with a hand plane but they could also be shaped by various router bits.
|Step 7: Counter bored holes drilled for inserting screws from the top|
The top could have been glued or nailed; I chose to screw them down and make a little slot for expansion.
|Step 8: Top screwed on and primer and on paint coating applied before attaching back|
It is a good idea of paint the insides of the shelf and the inside top before attaching the back. This makes the paint job easier. Make sure the edges of the sides on which the back is to be attached is not painted or else the glue will not adhere.
|Step 9: 6mm plywood back attached and painted|
Here the 6mm plywood back has been attached by glue and half inch nails. This is good enough for the job as it will not take weight or be subject to great stress.
|Step 10: Back attached and second coat of paint applied|
It is better to apply the final coat of paint after the back has been attached. The shelves and difficult to reach places would already have been painted.
|Step 1: Parts for drawers cut|
|Step 12: Drawer joints cut|
I used box joints for the drawers but there are many other ways of making drawers, the best being half blind dovetails (which I am yet to attempt). The worst kinds of drawers are those nailed and glued together; these invariably fail as drawers will be opened and closed hundreds of times and each pull will loosen a poor joint by a small amount. The cumulative effect over months will show sooner or later.
|Step 13: Fettling the drawers to make them fit|
The drawer sides should ideally be a snug fit, the adjustment being done with a hand plane. The drawers should be held securely in a vice before planing the edges.
|Step 14: Test fitting a drawer|
The drawer sides should ideally be a snug fit, the adjustment being done with a hand plane.
|Step 15: Drawers Painted and handles fitted|
For a good even paint layer, follow these steps: sand the wood surface with 180 and then 240 grit sandpaper; apply two coats of wood primer sanding after each coat with 320 grit sandpaper; apply thin coat of paint as first layer, sand with 320 grit paper; apply two to three more coats with slightly diluted paint, rubbing with 320 grit sandpaper between each coat. A decent brush helps a lot and the degree of dilution of the paint is crucial. If the paint is diluted too much it will be watery and will not coat the wood evenly, and also often cause tiny bubbles to form on the surface which can be a problem. If the paint is too thick then the brush marks will be prominent. Just a wee bit of turpentine is required to properly thin paint but you will have to experiment a bit to get the consistency right.
|Step 16: Operationalised!|
The undersides of the drawers have been waxed with a candle to facilitate easy opening and closing of the drawers. The shelf rests on a cleat (cannot be seen) securely screwed on to the wall and by brackets attached to the top back. This make the shelf very secure and capable of taking a lot of weight.
Needless to mention, the extra storage in the kitchen has been much appreciated.
16 April 2014
|Eden was working on this project but I haven't yet figured out what it is|
|He told me he needed to draw plans before he did anything else|
|Molded edge on the stretchers|
|Working out the details|
To be continued...
I’m yearning for the day I will have a space at home that is dedicated to woodworking. Right now, as many of you know, my “shop” shares space with books and my computer in my study. It’s a small room, and I have scads of books…and scads of tools. The books – most of which in said room are literary criticism and drama – are arranged by subject area (and […]
Here's a first attempt with one of my dovetail guides, not bad at all! Apparently they went together like a dream. That's hide glue on the dovetails which was used to glue the veneer to the drawer front. I've used this technique quite often to create half blind dovetails but I prefer to use my own bandsawn veneers which are a bit thicker.
The book matched walnut veneers look stunning and I've been promised some more pictures of the finished piece in due course. Thanks Jim.
For the last few decades, I’ve kept one indispensable tool readily available in my shop – glue sticks. Basically, they are milled material about 2″ thick and around 4″ wide (in my shop they were always made from hardwood because there was always plenty of scrap) that is cut to approximately 3′ in length. The idea is to elevate the material you are gluing up in order to be able […]
To build an English-style tool chest, you don’t need a chest full of hand tools. Here is what I consider the minimum tool kit necessary to build this chest during a class or in your shop (as soon as you have your stock dimensioned).
Block plane: for smoothing surfaces and trimming joints flush
Jack plane: for gross removal of material
Moving fillister, skew rabbet or large shoulder plane: for cutting rabbets
Plow plane: for plowing the groove in the lid
Beading plane: 1/8” or 3/16” (optional)
Coping saw, such as the Olson, and extra blades (10 or 12 tpi)
1/2” bevel-edge chisel
1/4” or 5/16” mortising chisel
Marking & Measuring
Cutting gauge, such as the Tite-Mark
Dividers (one or two pair)
Dovetail gauge or sliding T-bevel
Combination square: 6” or 12”
16 oz. claw hammer
Hand drill with a set of bits up to 1/4”
Depending on how you cut your dovetails, you can skip some of the equipment. If you cut pins first, you can get away without a marking knife. If you like your dovetails a little irregular looking, you can dispense with the dovetail marking gauge and the dividers. If you truly cut your dovetails “by hand” then you don’t need a dovetail saw (you ninja).
— Christopher Schwarz
Filed under: The Anarchist's Tool Chest, Woodworking Classes
As we commemorate the national day of funding government(s), generally argued as a “necessary evil,” it is worth reflecting on the thoughts on the matter from the First Founding Dad.
Government is not reason; it is not eloquent; it is force. Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master. — attributed to George Washington
As someone who unleashed deadly force against American citizens in The Whiskey Rebellion, I’d guess old George knew exactly what he was talking about.
By the 1840's or 50's continuous brass and copper pipe became commercially available, and ferrules, really just a section of pipe added to the handle to keep it from splitting, became common. Every style of chisel, except for mortise chisels adapted to ferrules, and the handles got smaller, the bolsters got tiny, and since there was no danger of splitting a handle, fitting a handle became considerably easier. Round handles made by power lathes became the norm, and buying handled tools became common.
Except for mortise chisels. You still needed the big handle for leverage, but fitting an oval ferrule to handle is really hard. So the design remained the same. The only exception was that handle makers invented machines that could make oval handles, the problem was that they didn't always fit their bolsters.
Up until about 1880 or so, The handles on professionally fitted mortise chisels were fitted flush with the bolster, this gives you the smallest, most comfortable handle for the size of chisel. After that makers started just using stock handles that were oversize and leaving it at that. It's not as nice but a lot less expensive. Ray Iles, who has a machine set up for making oval handles, makes them oversize as was done, and then sands them to fit flush. This gives us the best possible handle but this type of sanding operation wasn't really available back in the late 19th century.
In the picture, starting from the bottom, we first have two typical early 19th century mortise chisels. The one at the bottom having a thin leather washer to take up the gap between bolster and handle, the second one being flush fit. Either handle could be original, user installed, or a replacement. I can't tell you for certain, other than the second one is flush fitted and is of Beech so it might be original. The third chisel from the bottom is the later style - with a stock, over-sized machine made handle that is too big for the bolster. This particular chisel has British Army markings so it must date from the First World War.
The final chisel at the top is current production by Ray Iles. The handle is flush fitted of beech and also have the thinnest most elegant bolster of the lot. Ray's design of course was a purposeful throwback to the best of the early 19th century so while it belongs to the same tradition it reflects a conscious effort to avoid any dumbing down of the style.
According to "The Joiner and Cabinetmakers" (pages 107 and 108) when end users would keep a stock of scraps for the fitting handles. Beech, a common secondary wood was very popular but ash is also pretty common.
Most tools before the introduction of the ferrule were sold unhandled. Once tools were typically sold handled the selection of wood became more regular. In England beech was the overwhelming favorite. It was cheap, compressed easily, and while prone to checks, once installed on a tool it didn't split. Ash was also used, but not as frequently.
In the United States hickory was the favorite, and ash a close second. In Europe hornbeam is far and away the most common choice. Hornbeam is harder than either beech or hickory and less easy to compress, but it still works excellently. In Japan, red and white oak are the most common choices.
The reason these woods were all so popular is because handles were installed by just banging them on and to have them stay on via a compression fit, you needed a wood that would compress without cracking. Beech and hickory and the other favorites do this to a tee.
For tools that were not stuck, such as paring chisels, or tools meant mostly for show, expensive decorative woods were used. Boxwood, rosewood, Ebony, and ivory were the preferred choices, although boxwood, rosewood, and occasionally ebony were actually used on tools meant to be used. In general you don't find much ebony or ivory on edge tools, except those meant for show. These materials do not compress and fitting them is a far trickier job. Ray Iles told me that in the old days when installing boxwood handles on paring chisels the cutler would keep a little ladle of molten rosin to pour in the hole for the tang. I suppose these days any modern epoxy would work fine.
According to Toshio Odate handles should be left unfinished so that they surface will absorb sweat and stain so that your hands will not transfer the discoloration to your work. Unfinished wood is also a lot more grippy than finished wood and the handles will work better. That being said I don't know of any manufacturer who doesn't finish their handles with something. Shellac and lacquer being the most popular choices. Ray Iles uses linseed oil on all his handles so that he can maintain a grippy surface. Manufactures do this because when you sell new edge tools the one thing you don't want the handles to do is absorb sweat and look dirty from casual handling in a store.
The most important thing is that the wood must be DRY. Otherwise as it dries it will shrink away from the tang and no amount of initial compression force or epoxy will keep it on the tool.
Another point to understand is that the handles are held on the tang by compression. it's exactly like driving a nail into end grain, only bigger. Like a nail or a Japanese plane iron what holds the tang in the wood is pressure from the compression, and just as, if not more important, the fibers of the wood getting bent back and resisting the tang being pulled out. In theory at least one would might strive for a hole for the tang that is just a tad smaller than the tang is and fits it like a glove. In reality that's impossible to do and doesn't matter anyway. The compression forces are so high that as long as there is reasonable engagement we will be able to stick a tang in the handle and even before it's driven completely home - it will be impossible to remove.
In Part 5 we will demonstrate how a to handle a mortise chisel or in fact any tool with a tang.
PS - if you are a member of TATHS you will have just gotten their yearly journal which has two killer articles, one on "The English Handsaw Before the Industrial Revolution" and "The Sheffield Saw Industry". If you aren't a member you can learn more and join here.
The Complete Japanese Joinery, by Hideo Sato and Yasua Nakahara (translated by Koichi Paul Nii). Many people consider this to be the bible of Japanese joinery.
The Art of Japanese Joinery, by Kiyosi Seike. Terrific pictures, not as much detail on the uses and construction of these joints.
The Genius of Japanese Carpentry, by S. Azby Brown. More concerned with the architectural aspects of Japanese joinery, but has a nice photo essay on cutting a half-lapped gooseneck joint.
Picking just one would be difficult. I have all three books, and wouldn’t be without any of them. I would get The Complete Japanese Joinery first, but realize that you eventually get all three.