Hand Tool Headlines
The Woodworking Blogs Aggregator
An aggregate of many different woodworking blog feeds from across the 'net all in one place! These are my favorite blogs that I read everyday...
Brokeoff Mountain Luthierie
Jose Oribe, The Fine Guitar, 1985
If there is one part of making a guitar that really can frustrate me it is making and installing the bindings.
Some of the tasks/problems involved are-
*bringing the bindings down to .05 of an inch thick without breaking anything
*thin pieces ebony break easily and have nasty little splinters
*routing a consistent channel without blowing out any piece of wood or letting the router bit/chisel wander
This task/act/duty is where any little mistake you make will show for the life of the guitar, unless you know how to fix that mistake.
The great Spanish luthier, Jose Ramirez II once said,
In all human work, the wise look for virtues and fools look for flaws.
Two months ago, when I was working on the dimensional copy of Torres' FE 19, I discovered I was going to run out of maple veneer, but I figured I could get by with what I had on hand.
It was a poor quality veneer that I had purchased from LMI (I am sure LMI thought it was good enough!), grain runout was terrible, I would cut a 6mm wide strip and it would break into several pieces just lifting it off the work bench.
This past Friday I took a drive down the hill to Loveland, Colorado to The Wood Emporium, (sorry, Loren, the owner doesn't have a website) and thankfully Loren had some very nice maple veneer on hand. Where would we wood workers be without independent wood suppliers? Loren's shop is a much shorter trip than the Loveland Woodcraft Store and he remembers me.
A few passes through the veneer scraper put the veneer to where I wanted it, .018 of an inch thick. This is for the BWB purfling that will go on the guitar's top.
I swore I wouldn't use a router on this guitar, but a router will make a consistent rabbet for depth and it doesn't take all day to do the work.
Once the router work is done I still have to go back and clean up the rabbet by hand using files, chisels, X-Acto knives, emory boards (the kind for doing your fingernails) and anything else that will do the work.
Many of the books on guitar building pretty much tell you that once you rout the channels with a router you are done, go ahead and pop the binding right in!
It's not that easy.
And as I said earlier, this is the time when you can make the mistake that will be seen forever.
No gaps is the goal, but it does happen. What do I do to remedy the problem?
I use hide glue and sawdust, CA glue and sawdust, lacquer stick, "pine, fir or larch resin, with red pigments" and a whole lot of prayer.
One quarter of the binding is complete! Three more strips to install and then I can glue on the fret board! I could've glued on most of the binding today, but I didn't see the reason to, it is the weekend after all!
I just "discovered" this wonderful young guitarist (playing an eight string guitar) the other day while surfing the Internet, he is absolutely amazing! Very clear musical ideas with a wonderful technique and best of all, he does not suffer from the dreaded "guitar face"! No facial grimaces or contortions, a player worthy of the School of Andres Segovia! I'd pay money to see this kid!
Charles Fox, guitar maker, 1998
Some days it seems that no matter how hard you work you just can't get ahead. That was my experience last week.
Sorry, no photos of bending the curly maple. I will say that this curly big leaf maple that I purchased from The Wood Well, click here for the website, bent like a dream. Bad simile, but I have never had a wood bend so easily, it was even easier than California laurel!
Click here for a great discussion on bending sides.
When I started out in this thing called lutherie twenty years ago, every person and book that I consulted on bending wood said to steer away from curly maple. This is the third guitar that I have made from curly maple, this is great wood to work with, though a little difficult to plane well.
I have yet to work with curly rock maple, but something tells me it will be easier to bend than mahogany. Of course, I have read that mahogany is relatively easy to bend, I got some stuff once that was almost impossible to bend.
I like to attach the sides to the top with individual tentellones, little triangular blocks of wood, instead of a kerfing strip. It takes a while to attach both sides this way (all day!), but I feel that offers a more rigid connection of the top to the sides (read "rim") of the guitar. I have seen guitars from the Jose Ramirez III shop made this way, also guitars by Santos Hernandez, Domingo Esteso, so I figure if the masters did it so can I!
Another option is to laminate strips into a solid lining. I just haven't gotten around to doing that, probably because it means using more power tools, something I want to stay away from.
The guitar is almost ready to receive the back.
All I need to adjust the angle of the "foot" of the heel and do a final clean up of the inside.
I hope I can start installing the bindings by Wednesday, hopefully I won't spin any wheels.
Billy Joel, You're Only Human, 1985
I made a mistake.
If I had followed through and completed the work I would have looked like a rank amateur who didn't know how to read a measuring tape. I do know how to read a tape, I was lead carpenter/foreman on over ten residential homes and I always checked and rechecked every measurement. I use to find layout mistakes that the architect made on the blue prints.
For some reason, when I was first laying out the project I am speaking of, the number "12" was instead of "12.5". I caught this error on a piece of wood that was going into the project and I fixed it and fixed its relationship to the whole.
Problem is I forgot to look for "12" else where in the project.
Talk about getting stuck in La-La land.
The project was taken apart this morning, material was saved and a new part was made so that all measurements were in relationship to each other.
So what, I lost 2 days of work due to this mistake, the end project is still going to be amazing.
This afternoon I made a cup of espresso, sat out on the porch and thought about how lucky I am to married to the most beautiful woman on Earth; that I get to live in Colorado and the West; and I remembered that everything is a journey and to enjoy what happens to me along the way. Life is the only destination.
James Krenov, Making Music with Planes, 1997
I had an argument with a friend who is a highly talented furniture maker about accuracy in woodworking. I quoted the above statement and guess what he pulled out of his apron pocket? Yep, a square that was accurate to a 10,000th of an inch. He got a little sore at me when I laughed at his square and then I asked him, "Really? Why be that accurate? Your breath on that piece of wood will cause it to swell that much in the blink of an eye!"
It took a month before he would talk to me again.
I get very impatient with people who ask me how I can be accurate with hand tools. A year ago I had to block a person's email to me because they pestered me so much asking "how can you make guitars without power tools? It is impossible to do so!"
What I really wanted to ask that person was this, "How did Antonio Stradivari create such wonderful musical instruments without a workshop stuffed full of the latest, greatest power tools?"
I didn't ask that question because that argument wasn't worth my time.
This photograph is from Violin Making by Walter H. Mayson, which can be found here. These are some of the tools that he mentions in his book, I notice that there are no planes in this collection. Even today, the great violin makers use hand tools such as these.
These are Stradivari's original planes. More of his tools can be found here. Pretty simple and I am sure that he made them himself instead of ordering them over the Internet from Garret Wade.
I love making classical guitars and when I do make a guitar I want to listen to the wood. I want it to tell me something about myself so I can find the voice it wants.
To help with that, I limit my use of power tools.
I use a Dremel for cutting out rosette channels, a table saw for ripping out saddle slots on the bridge, a drill press to drill four holes in the head stock so I can cut out the slots for the tuners, a Porter Cable drill gun to drill tuner holes and a heat gun to warm up braces before I apply hot hide glue to glue the braces to the guitar top.
I cut this slot, for guitar sides, in the heel block with a Pax brand back saw and chiseled out the waste by hand.
A simple shooting board and a well tuned No. 7 Stanley jointer plane with a sharp iron is all I need to joint two boards that will make a seam so tight that I am often fooled as to where the joint is among the growth rings.
The binding channels I cut by hand.
Yes, I have a brand new router and a very expensive jig attachment, but you can quickly ruin a $2000+ guitar in less then a heartbeat if you lose focus and concentration. I am not sure that I am going to use it on the seven string classical guitar that I am currently building.
I thinned down this side of Indian rosewood to a sixteenth of an inch with a No.3 smoothing plane and a card scraper. I made it that thin so I could laminate the side to some Alaska cedar veneer.
Click here to see photos of veneering these woods together.
My point is, yes, you can be accurate with hand tools!
But, as I have said before, the best way to be good with power tools is to be good with hand tools first.
Duncan Phyfe didn't have an amped up shop, did he? I could be wrong, maybe he had a table saw and a router.
I think that we limit our imaginations and capabilities by being tied to a machine that does the work.
And I am not sure that William Morris and Gustave Stickley were correct when they said that much of the drudgery of wood working can be eliminated by using power tools. I know planing down stock by hand is a lot of work, but a thickness planer puts a distance between us and our medium.
If we distance ourselves even the slightest amount from our own work, will our customers see us as people or the machines that made the work? What really is their perception of that work?
Creating is a fundamental part of being a human, a person. It should be fun and enlightening.
The Hellier Stradivari violin, circa 1679.
One last rant--look hard at this violin. How does it affect you when you look at it? Now, after some thought and introspection over this great work, try to convince me that that we as wood workers really need to own and use power tools.
Here's a YouTube for your Sunday afternoon!
Jonathan Hale, The Old Way of Seeing, 1994
The idea for making a regular plane iron into a toothing iron I first saw in Guitar Making, Tradition and Technology, by Cumpiano and Natelson. I had always dismissed it because I am good at thicknessing a piece of wood.
I reconsidered using a toothing plane after reading this post on Finely Strung. Christopher Martyn makes some wonderful instruments, so I reasoned "why not try it?"
I bought another Hock Tool blade for my No.3 Stanley plane, marked it for teeth, filed away at it and got it razor sharp.
This is the reason why I thought I would try a toothing blade--fiddle back maple. The seven string classical guitar that I am making has curly maple back and sides, the last thing I want is tearout.
Yes, when I sharpen my plane iron for this task I put a 5-10 degree back bevel on it and I honed the front edge of the Lee Valley chip breaker to 50 degrees just like the guys at Lie Nielsen say you should do. All that work makes the iron work wonders, but I want to give myself a little extra security-this is expensive wood. If I ruin this piece...
I used the iron on the Sitka spruce top for the seven string guitar, it leaves tracks for me to follow with a regular iron.
After smoothing away the tracks with a regular iron I followed up with a well sharpened card scraper to reach the final thickness that I want for this top.
A shot of how fine the toothing lines are on the maple
I will reduce the maple back and sides down to that realm that is a 5/64th to 3/32nd of an inch, my goal is to make a light and responsive guitar.
Why not use a thickness sander, you ask?
I don't want-
to set up a dust collection system
to use more electricity than I need to
to wear a respirator
or build another tool
I have a head and a heart, and
hands that are attached to my arms,
that are connected to my shoulders, my back,
my hips, my legs, my feet and then
the world--I think they are good enough for doing the work.
Howard Bass, José Tomás: Memory and Legacy, 2012
Last year, I made a guitar for Julia, lead singer of Ode to the Marionette. It was a redwood/Indian rosewood guitar, small bodied with a short string length of 635mm. She loved it so much that she asked me to make her a seven string flamenco guitar.
I am excited to make her a new guitar, especially a seven string because it is surprising how much more music can be played on a guitar with an extra bass string. Check out the video at the end of this post.
Julia has small hands and to make it comfortable for her to play this guitar I am making it with a 635mm string length, a standard classical guitar has a string length of 650mm, so this requires making the entire guitar smaller so it doesn't look out of proportion to itself and the performer. A standard classical guitar has a box length of 480-490mm, this guitar has a box length of 470mm.
A concern of mine was to make sure that the head stock wasn't going to be way too big to fit this guitar, I also don't want this guitar to be neck heavy. I tapered the headstock in the opposite direction of the usual classical headstock, that is wider at the nut and smaller at the crest. I was going to make the crest be a copy of Santos Hernandez's crest, but it made the head stock look gargantuan compared to the rest of the guitar.
I spent most of the morning checking and re-checking the layout of the headstock to make sure everything was perfect for I cut anything. The noon time 2 mile run I took helped me get through the afternoon with the rest of the work.
Here's the heel block. I like to wedge the sides in, instead of having just a narrow slot.
Glueing the headstock to the neck shaft.
Julia chose a nice Sitka spruce top for her guitar, this photo shows my jointing jig. It was a sunny day when I jointed this top, I went outside to "candle" the joint using the sun.
Glueing the two top pieces together.
The top with layout for braces and harmonic bars.
Tomorrow will be spent finish carving the heel. Again, it is a balancing act, how to make everything look in proportion for a wider neck on a smaller bodied guitar.
Stayed tuned, more seven string guitar fun is on its way!
Here is a video of Doug DeVries playing on a seven string classical guitar. Enjoy!
Part of a conversation that I overheard on a construction site.
I'm on a bit of a deadline.
I go back to my day job as a historic preservation carpenter in one month and I just got an order for a seven string flamenco guitar.
I've got 2 guitars in the works, I want to get them all done by the middle of this summer while working a full time job.
A long time ago, I used a pore filler on an early guitar thinking that it was "the way to go!" in finishing that guitar. All I remember is the endless sanding down to the wood only to find that I needed to fill the pores again.
This week I succumbed to what I thought might be quick, easy and high quality, I got some drywall compound and stained it black.
I filled the pores, wiped off as much of the compound as I could (I went through a lot of shop paper towels!), let the compound dry for a couple of hours and then sanded the back and sides. Hmm, sort of worked and decided to fill the whole thing again, I let it dry over night.
I started sanding this morning, using 320 grit paper, according to the instructions, and I ended up getting out a card scraper so I could see the wood. Again, hmph! I scraped and sanded and then blew off all the dust with my compressor and air nozzle. While I was blowing the wood I could actually see pieces of drywall compound being lifted out of the pores.
The last time I try using that technique of pore filling!
I got out some dark blonde shellac, EverClear, 4F pumice, olive oil and the French polish pads. I soaked the wood as much as I could with shellac and then I cheated - I began applying pumice with alcohol, shellac and olive oil. I wanted to fill the pores as quick as I could.
And it worked.
I will go back and level sand the finish, but first I want to seal the rosewood as best as I can. I am using ebony to bind this guitar and the binding laminate will be curly maple. The last thing I want is for the maple to become pink from the rosewood dust, I figure that sealing the rosewood before I cut the binding ledges and install the binding will save me some grief.
I really want to say that using that drywall compound was a waste of my time, I can't because it taught me that the really old tried and true methods can be the best.
Stanley Doubtfire, Make Your Own Classical Guitar, 1981
I am in the process of pore filling this guitar today, so I thought that many of you would like to see how the sound box of a guitar is assembled. I have left out some steps, what follows are the basic steps...
Gluing on two upper harmonic bars, I add one more bar underneath the fret board. These are glued on with Lee Valley's fish glue.
The ledge for the sound board is cut into the heel block of the neck. I did this step with a router on several earlier guitars with almost disastrous results, I cut this by hand these days.
Aligning the center line of the top with the center line of the neck.
Gluing and nailing the top to the heel block. Antonio Torres did the same thing! I pre-drill the holes for these nails these days, less error in placement and the nails hammer in as slick as a willow whistle!
Clamping the top and heel block. In this photo you can see the third harmonic bar and the 1.5mm thick re-inforcment that is underneath the fret board. This reduces the chance of the top cracking with the movement of the ebony fret board.
Gluing the laminated sides to the top.
The sides are attached to the top with these little blocks, they are made from the same redwood as the top is, individually installed as I cut them from the kerfing stick. Yeah, I am a little bit of a geek.
A shop made miter box that I threw together from some scrap walnut.
The best glue on earth, fresh made hot hide glue! Each block was glued in place with this glue, it grabs quickly and is strong!
I use continuous kerfing for the back. I like to glue this on with fish glue.
Installing the pillarets for the harmonic bars.
Adding a wedge shape piece of wood to the heel of the the neck. The heel of the neck needs to contact the back for strength, the back is arched and this wedge is made so the heel is in the same arch as the back.
The back braces are shaped and the back is ready to be glued onto the guitar.
I use a rope cut from a tire inner tube to "clamp" the back to the sides. Again, I use fish glue, I really do like the stuff!
If you would like to know more about making a guitar, I highly recommend Guitarmaking: Tradition and Technology: A Complete Reference for the Design & Construction of the Steel-String Folk Guitar & the Classical Guitar, by Cumpiano and Natelson; and Making Master Guitars by Roy Courtnall.
Enjoy this YouTube of Tatyana Ryzhkova!
Ida Virginia Turney, Paul Bunyan Comes West, 1928
This book, Legends of Paul Bunyan, collected by Harold Felton, showed up in the mail the other day, and I must say, if you have never read any books about Paul Bunyan then you should read this one! It's a wonderful collection of stories, poems and songs about Paul and his life, there is even a poem by Robert Frost in this collection. There are stories by the usual Paul Bunyan authors: W.B Laughead, James Stevens, Esther Shepard, Wallace Wadsworth, etc., and stories that were gathered from real loggers. Gorgeous illustrations and many hours of fun reading.
I mentioned in a previous posting that I was born and raised where the southern end Cascade Mountain Range collides with the northern end of the Sierra Nevada Range. It was magical to grow up in a land of old growth timber, there were ponderosa and sugar pines six feet through right out our back door. Then there were all the stories about the men and women who worked in the lumber camps and surrounding communities, I miss those who told those stories.
Many of the events in those family stories took place in the sawmill town of Lyonsville, California. There the Champion Mill produced lumber which was floated down to the kilns and yards via a flume to Red Bluff, California. The Sierra Lumber Company used 0-6-0T Porter locomotives to haul the trees in from the lumber camps and log chutes to the mill, and it ran on meter gauge tracks. When the line was first laid down, Tehama County couldn't tax Sierra Lumber Company, because meter gauge was not used anywhere else in the United States. That was quickly rectified.
This "Uncle Sam", locomotive #3 that operated from Lyonsville. According to John Barnhill at Foothill Rails, click here to see his website, "Uncle Sam" was made by H.K. Porter & Co. in 1896.
This is "Antelope", locomotive #2. I think it was named "Antelope" partly as a joke, these weren't fast engines and the Champion Mill sat right on the edge of the North Fork of Antelope Creek. It also ran on the Lyonsville line. Mr. Barnhill states that "Antelope" was by H.K. Porter & Co. in 1883.
Here is a shot of "Antelope" pushing a load into Lyonsville (I can tell it's #2 from the smokestack. This is a great shot, I rarely find old photos of carpenters building houses.
I believe this was the first locomotive purchased by the Sierra Flume and Lumber Company, the predecessor of the Sierra Lumber Co. Barnhill states that this 0-4-0 was made by the Marysville Foundry, Marysville, California in 1877 and that it was named "Yellow Hammer". I haven't found any information on the internet about the Marysville Foundry making locomotives, but I did find out that they made other rolling stock.
This a the Champion Mill at Lyonsville. The men are stacking lumber, which will later be put into the flume to be shipped down to the Red Bluff yard to be planed and dried before it will be shipped out on the main line railroad. Diamond Match Company had purchased the Sierra Lumber Company by the time this photo was taken.
"Uncle Sam" on a trestle somewhere near Lyonsville. I bet that that load is just one sugar pine tree!
My own "Uncle Sam", a Bachmann Spectrum Porter 0-4-0T pulling a load of Douglas fir.
You got to check out this YouTube! Enjoy!