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Back in the late fall, I worked on some commission work that I kept off the blog. Didn’t want to let the cat out of the bag…these things being presents. Then I forgot to show them once the holidays were over. A Shakespeare enthusiast asked me to make a joined chest and joined stool, to commemorate 25 years of he & his wife reading Shakespeare together. Thus, the “WS” carved on the muntins.
As I was making the front of this chest, I wrote about the mitered joints for Popular Woodworking Magazine. The current issue (April 2018) has the whole run-down on cutting the joint. I think I added it to the upcoming book too. Here’s the layout of the tenon.
It’s one really leaned-over sawcut to get that mitered shoulder.
A marking gauge defines the bevel on each edge of this muntin. Then plane it down.
The tenon partway home, make sure the grooves line up, then the mitered shoulder slides over the beveled edge of the stile. Whew.
Then, to make matters even more complicated, I undertook a painting on the inside of the lid. I haven’t really done any painting since about 1981…What was I thinking?
The finished painting. I felt like Alec Guinness in The Horse’s Mouth – It never comes out like it is in my head.
When that was done, I got to make my own wife a present. A much-needed book rack, for library books used in home-schooling. It looks so Arts & Crafts; quartersawn white oak, through mortise & tenon joints…Look at that wild medullary ray pattern on those uprights. Who could dislike that?
Me. I couldn’t leave it like that. Too blank. Horror vacui.
|the moment of truth|
|the epoxy on this is still a little tacky|
|scraping the finish off the drawer front|
|this got a reprieve|
|epoxied the spacer on|
|did some putty work before the epoxy|
|handle haircut time|
On Miles's handle I started the haircut down at the bottom where it ran wild and beyond the bolster edges.
|got one side close to the bolster edge|
|top of Miles's pigsticker|
|Miles's chisel sanded and done|
|the other side of the 3/8" chisel|
|planing the facets out|
|I'm happy with the grip now|
|the plastic pouch these came in is history|
|I want to make something similar like this|
|painted the tool cabinet and one drawer|
|painted the frog on the #5|
|scraping the big front on the pull out tray|
|I didn't go nutso on this|
|painted the interior of the tray|
I may get the tool cabinet painted and ready for the tools tomorrow.
Did you know that Fred Lynn and Ichiro Suzuki are the only two players in MLB who were Rookie of the year and MVP in the same year?
The complete 2018 Barn workshop schedule, which I will post every couple of weeks to help folks remember the schedule.
Historic Finishing April 26-28, $375
Making A Petite Dovetail Saw June 8-10, $400
Boullework Marquetry July 13-15, $375
Knotwork Banding Inlay August 10-12, $375
Build A Classic Workbench September 3-7, $950
contact me here if you are interested in any of these workshops.
If you wandered by our warehouse lately, you would be hard pressed not to notice that there are many changes afoot. We just purchased our first machining center and we had to basically move everything in the workshop at least once, sometimes twice, to make room. And since the electricans are coming anyway, we are adding big ceiling fans too. Also a compressor, and lots of miscellaneous things like a refractometer in order to tell us the condition of the machine coolant.
It's all very exciting!
But just to make it interesting, I am writing this after a week of staying home sick battling the flu. Other staff members are sick too. I feel okay today, other than feeling the effects of not having eaten a proper meal all week, but I thought it would be prudent to stay at home.
Being sick and short-staffed, especially with the machining center coming, is not only cruddy of itself, but also made us realize at the last minute that we were not in a position to do the New Jersey Woodworkers Show next weekend. We're disappointed - we always have a good time at the show, but we know it's important to know your limits. For example, in order to be ready for the show we have to set up show inventory for packing. Since I was out sick, I couldn't do this. And the person who sets up the booth for the show has also been under the weather. This sets up a whole cascade of events. So sadly it's not happening this year. :(
Meanwhile other things are chugging along at TFWW. Festool prices go up on March 1, so if you were planning a purchase anyway do it now ( Click here). The big change for Festool is that all the vacuums (except the Autoclean) will start coming with smooth hoses. And the hose garage has improved too. Cost have gone up, so getting the older versions might be your choice, but we will have new models to sell on March 1st.
If you are in the neighborhood feel, free to stop by the showroom on Friday the 2nd (8 AM -5 PM) or Saturday (11 AM -5 PM) we will have snacks and other treats.
Also finally, I'm delighted to announce that Osmo finishing supplies are arriving this week. We have been trying to carry this line of environmentally aware and durable hardwax oils for a while and now we have succeeded. Watch our site or stop by to check Osmo out!
ps - That's our new compressor and tank coming off a truck from our local compressor dealer, Murlynn Compressor. Gerry has been great putting together a deal for us that made sense.
First, I’d like to say, I didn’t mean to pick all walnut build videos this week. It just sort of happened and we didn’t notice it until we were in post-production. Perhaps I have a pent-up walnut design that’s leaking out of the subconscious – I don’t know. Either way, I hope you enjoy this small collection of the best woodworking videos of the week on YouTube! The Top Woodworking Videos of the […]
The post PopWood Playback #8 | Top Woodworking Videos of the Week appeared first on Popular Woodworking Magazine.
|working on the bridle joint idea|
|for Miles's toolbox|
|got a 1/2" one for me|
|Miles's 3/8" pigsticker on top and my 1/2" on the bottom|
|my 9/16" pigsticker|
|what's up with boxes?|
|first mind fart|
|at least I repeated it on the upright|
|thinning the dowels|
|it's flush on this side - wow again|
This doesn't change my opinion of dowel joints. I still don't have a high regard for them but I am happy with my technique and the resulting joint. This will stay a bottom of the pile for choosing joints but I won't hesitate to use again if I have to.
|spacing the braces|
|I have a warm and fuzzy with this|
|took it apart, spread the epoxy, and rescrewed it|
|no gap on the top drawer|
|remove the spacer|
|sized the two end grain surfaces|
Did you know that the average american watches about 4 hours of TV a day?
Skateboarding is a childhood obsession of a few members of the PW team. In this episode of Afterlife of Trees, we talk to a Cincinnati-based custom longboard builders, Jeff Risinger and Val Woodham, whose stunning skateboards are also works of art. We then speak to Martinus Pool of Adrian Martinus Custom Woodworking – artists who create furniture and new objects from old skateboards. The Afterlife of Trees is Popular […]
I don’t remember much of the furniture I grew up with, but one small piece stands out in my memory. It was a small, oak footstool, which was kicked around my parents’ kitchen for years (sometimes literally). I believe that it was made by some friends who were into woodworking at the time. They made a batch of them to sell, and my parents bought one. It’s survived several decades of heavy use in their house, so when I first began working wood, one of my first projects was a similar kitchen stool.
My resources were limited, and so was my skill set. The original stool, which I built 10 years ago, was made entirely from pine. I was not at all confident in my mortise-and-tenon joints, so I ended up just dovetailing the legs into the sides.
That stool stood up for five years, but eventually the legs all came loose. By that time I had the tools to make tapered tenons, so I ended up cutting the stool’s top shorter, boring angled mortises, and installing new legs, also made from pine.
That version of the stool lasted five more years. But even though I had reinforced the pine top with battens underneath, the whole thing finally split in half. It was clearly time to replace this old stool with something more substantial.
This is the rebuilt and re-broken stool, standing atop the pieces that will become its replacement.
In theory, there was nothing wrong with the rebuilt stool’s construction. The only problem is that construction-grade pine is not a good material for the seat. The open grain in the mortises doesn’t take glue well, and the wood is too easy to split.
An ideal replacement would have a hardwood top, preferably made from a close-grained hardwood, and legs made of a tough hardwood appropriate to the task. I had no wood thick and wide enough for the top, though. After considering the wood I did have on hand, I opted for a laminated cherry top and red oak legs.
The cherry wood is a story in itself. I had several boards that I had gotten for free out of a pile of junk lumber. They had a lot of bug holes, and the ends were rotted–which is why they were free! But each one had a little sound wood inside. It took all the good wood from two of these 6′ boards to make one top for a stool.
As I cut into the cherry, I had a minimum length in mind (11″), but I was able to cut a few pieces longer (up to 12″), just in case I needed to cut around defects later on. As I looked at my collection of wood strips, though, I found that I could place the longest ones in the middle and the shortest at the end, which would allow the ends of the top to be curved instead of straight. There’s no functional advantage to curved ends, but they will look nicer.
The wood strips were pretty rough when I brought them into the shop. I oriented all the worst edges in one direction (see photo above), which would be the bottom. Then I planed the other three sides.
Even nasty looking lumber can clean up nicely.
Lots of glue and an overnight clamp-up later, I had a top.
While top was in the clamps, I turned my attention to the legs. I selected some straight-grained red oak I had stashed away for just such an occasion. The oak came from a neighbor’s tree, which was taken down a while ago. I had sawn up a few pieces to about 1 1/2″ square, expecting to eventually build some kind of a stool or chair. I cut four billets to about 12″ long. That allowed me plenty of leeway to eventually trim either end to final length. The stool itself will end up 10 1/2″ tall.
I planed them roughly square, but there was no reason to obsess over making them identical in thickness. What’s the final thickness of the legs? I have no idea. Somewhere a little under the 1 1/2″ they started out as. But it really doesn’t matter.
I set them in cradles to plane the square pieces down to octagons.
I love how the oak shavings pile up on the windowsill beside my bench.
I marked the approximate center of each leg with a Forstner bit the same width as the small end of the tapered tenon cutter–in this case 1/2″. I have a tapered tenon cutter (essentially a giant pencil sharpener) that allows me to shave down a perfect tenon. First, however, it is necessary to roughly shape a taper on the end of the leg before cutting it to final shape with the tenon cutter.
For one insane moment I considered sawing the taper down–eight cuts on four legs. Then I came to my senses and reached for my drawknife. I marked 1″ below the tenon cutter’s length and started with the drawknife. Although the tenon cutter makes an accurate cut, it can be slow going. If the workpiece is just a little too thick, the tenon cutter stops cutting, and then it’s necessary to remove more stock with spokeshave before continuing with the tenon cutter.
Eventually I got them all cut.
The next day, I turned my attention back to the top. The glue was dry, and the top was ready to be planed. This is the “good” side, which will be the visible top.
Planing across the grain with a jack plane quickly leveled out the slab.
A smoothing plane with the grain leaves everything flat and silky smooth.
Viewing a planed surface with raking light helps identify any irregularities. I know I’m going overboard here, though. This surface is going to be stood on regularly, so it’s not necessary to make everything precisely flat and smooth. But a smooth surface is less likely to collect grime and easier to clean than a rough surface.
Plus, cherry is fun to plane.
Next I cut a gentle curve on each end. Marking out the curve was easy. To mark this kind of curve, I’ve seen woodworkers rig up some kind of trammel or pencil-and-string apparatus. But it’s not necessary to draw a geometrically-precise curve. Your arm will do nicely. Your elbow is the pivot point. Place it in line with the center of the workpiece. Then hold the pencil and swing your arm from side to side. The result is as fair a curve as you could want on a stool.
The only really tricky part of this whole build is boring the holes at the correct angle. Set a bevel gauge to a pleasing angle (I used one of the legs on the original stool) and eyeball the rest. If I do this much more, I’ll make myself an angle-gauge that will stand up easier. I kept knocking the bevel gauge over.
I did have to double-check that I was boring the correct angle on the correct side. The last time I did this, I bored the holes backwards, and the bottom instantly became the top.
Actually, boring at the correct angle isn’t the hard part. It’s reaming the holes at the correct angle that is difficult. At least with the auger bit, once you’ve established the correct angle with a few turns of the brace, the bit will keep going at pretty much the same angle you started with. The reamer, however, can be tilted in many different directions at any time, so you have to repeatedly check your angle every few turns.
Even with repeated checking, the angles are visibly different from each other. Oh well. They’re not far enough off to affect the stool in use.
Also, as you approach the final depth with the reamer, test-fit the leg frequently. Once the top of the leg pokes up through the top, it’s time to stop reaming. Mark the hole and the leg so you make sure you don’t get them mixed up later.
Now, as tempting as it would be to just glue up the legs now, it is best to do all the shaping and trimming work on the top before inserting the legs.
First, I eased the edges just a little all around the underside of the top. It gives the whole piece a lighter look. I used a plane and spokeshave to relieve all the sharp edges. You don’t want a sharp corner when you inevitably bash your shin against it while carrying dishes through the kitchen.
I also found just a few old bug holes and one little soft spot on the end that needed attention. I saturated the soft spot with thin superglue, which will stabilize the wood. I filled the bug holes with sawdust and dripped superglue onto them, too. After drying the superglue with a hairdryer, I used a card scraper to remove the excess glue, leaving a perfectly smooth, filled void.
Once the top is shaped, trimmed, and smoothed, it’s time to get ready to install the legs. I find that legs like this will tend to work loose if they aren’t secured somehow, so I decided to wedge the tenons. Here’s how:
- Make the wedges the same width as the top of the mortise. Give them an aggressive taper–not too low an angle! Use a tough, seasoned wood like oak or hickory. These are pecan, also a tough wood.
- Insert the legs and mark a line across the grain of the top. With the tenon saw, cut a kerf in the top of each leg to a depth of about 1″. You just need the kerfs deep enough to allow the very top of the tenon to expand and lock the leg into the mortise.
- Use a half-round file or a knife to relieve the tops of the mortises, just on the end-grain. That way, when you drive the wedges in, the tops of the tenons will have space to expand, creating a reversed taper and locking the legs in place.
- Place clamps across the top to prevent the top from splitting as you drive the tenons in. This is a nice time to call in a little shop assistant to help.
Dinner was almost ready. Once the smaller kids were done setting the table, they each came over to help insert the legs into the mortises. We slathered the tenons with lots of wood glue, rotated them in the mortises until the whole surface was coated, and then pressed them in. I had marked the inside of each leg so I got the best grain oriented to the outside. Finally, we tapped each leg home with a mallet.
Before sitting down to dinner, we flipped the stool over and drove in the wedges. Wedging tenons is a tricky thing. If you don’t drive the wedges in deep enough, the wedging action won’t happen. But drive a wedge in too hard, and you risk breaking it off inside the slot. (If that does happen, about the only thing to do is to quickly cut another wedge with a blunt tip and try to drive it in on top of the broken one. Sometimes it works.) Just tap the wedge firmly until it stops. If you’re paying attention, you’ll feel it stop.
I let the glue dry overnight, then sawed off the tops of the wedges and planed everything flush.
On a stool like this, there are two potentially weak places, so it pays to reinforce each one. The first is the joints, which can work loose over time. Which is why I wedged the tenons. The other potential weak spot is the top itself. The long grain between the legs is unsupported and could possibly split in half if, say, somebody jumped and landed hard on the middle of the stool. So as one final piece of insurance, I nailed two battens underneath the top. For the battens, I selected a wood that is strong along the grain but fairly lightweight: southern yellow pine.
Although these battens will be mostly unseen, I still took the time to plane them smooth and chamfer the edges. Not only will this make picking up the stool easier on the fingers, but it lends just a little bit of grace to what is otherwise a very plain design.
What are the dimensions of the battens? I don’t know, really. Probably about 3/8″ thick and 1 1/2″ wide, more or less. What is more important is that they are flat sawn or rift sawn, not quartersawn. When nailing battens like this in place, the nails will hold better (and be less likely to split to wood) if they punch through the growth rings rather than between them.
I used cut nails, which require a pilot hole but hold very firmly. With a good pilot hole, you can pound in these nails perilously close to the ends of the battens without splitting them. I placed the battens as far apart as I could, which ended up being right up against the legs.
The last major step is to cut off the bottoms of the legs so the stool won’t wobble.
The easiest way is to place the stool on a relatively flat surface (such as the top of your workbench) and use something of the right thickness as a gauge to mark around each leg with a pencil. The end of my bevel gauge happened to be just right.
The only difficult part of this operation is holding the work steady as you cut the legs to length. It seems that however you hold them, the other legs are in the way of your handsaw. Well, so be it. Saw carefully, and try not to hit the other legs as you do so.
Just saw to your pencil lines, and don’t worry about being any more accurate than that. You could try to get the bottom of each leg precisely co-planar so the stool will sit perfectly on a perfectly flat surface. But that’s pointless because your floors aren’t that flat. As long as you get everything close enough, the stool’s top and legs will flex a little as you stand on it, and it won’t wobble in use.
The last shaping job to do is to relieve the sharp edges around the bottoms of the legs. Chamfering those edges will make the legs less likely to splinter on the ends. I used a spokeshave, but you could use a sanding block and sandpaper just as easily.
And now, here it is, the finished product:
The final dimensions are 10 1/2″ tall, 11 1/2″ wide, and 9 1/2″ deep.
Now to apply a quick finish to bring out the colors and make the inevitable dirt a little easier to clean off.
I applied some homemade Danish oil (equal parts polyurethane, safflower oil, and mineral spirits), using a couple heavy coats on the top especially. After letting it dry for a day in front of a fan, it was ready to use.
Here’s a shot of the underside now that everything is finished:
And the completed stool:
Now that it’s done, I’m thinking it’s almost too pretty to use.
While unpacking my “Gilding” tub for setting up my presentation at the CW WW18thC conference I removed all the stuff I needed for the show. Getting to the bottom of the tub I was dumbstruck. There, underneath all the gilding supplies — where it was not supposed to be — sat as my long-missing box of mostly mega-dollar (mostly) sable detailing brushes. I had turned the shop upside down several times in the past three years looking for this little box of treasures to no avail.
Recreating history is easier when you know all the secrets. Apparently (well, actually more than apparently) at a gilding demo many moons ago some idiot had packed this box of treasured brushes in the wrong tub of supplies.
Protection against self-incrimination prevents me from identifying the idiot.
As if WW18thC 2018 was not already wonderful enough!
|fixing the broken saw horse|
I sawed and planed what was left of the tenon at the bottom of this upright. Filling in the mortise is next.
|drilled out some waste|
|had to try it|
|I didn't reuse the first two screw holes|
|small miller dowel|
|what I'm going with|
|step two has room for two screws|
|shut the lights after this|
Did you know that an average adult elephant has a trunk that is 8 feet long (2.4 meters)?
The last session at WW18thC was my presentation of Historic Gilding and Finishing, including a brief sprint through the application of gold leaf. I described processes of gilding with a particular emphasis on building the surface (wood, gesso, bole) to make it amenable to the laying of gold leaf. It was only a few minutes, but gilding is a topic that can be introduced in either ten minutes or ten days, nothing in between makes much sense.
As quickly as I could I changed gears to get to transparent finishing, relying as always on my Six Steps To Perfect Finishing, a rubric that has served me flawlessly since I came up with it a couple dozen years ago. Not every one of the six points got the same emphasis here, that was not practicable given the time constraints, but the conceptual model was followed closely.
As always the starting point was surface preparation, including using toothing planes, scrapers, and pumice blocks that were integral to the finisher’s tool kit 250 years ago.
The final step in surface prep was to burnish the wood with polishing sticks or fiber bundle polissoirs.
I then moved into the no-man’s-land of filling the grain and building the foundation for the finish yet to come, employing the traditional method of using beeswax as the grain filler. In some circumstances this is the finished surface, in others it is the foundation.
In olden times they would have used a fire-heated iron to melt on the beeswax, I use a similar shaped tool that is electric. The molten wax is drizzled on to the surface then distributed with the heated iron unto there is excess. After cooling any excess is scraped off.
When choosing the finish itself, an 18th century palette would have been based on four major families of finishes. From left to right they are shellac, linseed oil, beeswax, and colophony (pine rosin).
In this demo I used padded spirit varnish (shellac) to show the application of the finish over the beeswax grain filling.
And then my time was up and everyone went home.
I’ll be offering my annual Historic Finishing workshop at the barn in late April. Let me know if you would like to participate.
WorkbenchCon, A brand new maker conference, kicks off tomorrow and runs through Saturday in Atlanta, Georgia. It represents a departure from the woodworking show model of vendors and manufacturers setting up booths and focuses on influence, branding, and networking. Tickets are $399 and will not be available at the door. They describe the conference on their website: Our mission is to relate to the influencer, DIYer and business person in YOU…HOW? Our […]
The post How to Follow WorkbenchCon 2018 – A Conference for Makers and Influencers appeared first on Popular Woodworking Magazine.
Recently I needed to install two thumb screws into a makeshift fence that was intended for my petite table saw. By threading a hole in the wooden fence I was able to provide my hardware of choice (thumb screws) sufficient purchase to attach the new fence to the one supplied by the manufacturer. This method also allowed me to loosen and tighten the fence as needed, and even dismantle it […]
I never looked closely at how the head was attached to the handle of my handheld sander. After inspecting, I felt I could repair or at least salvage something from this equipment failure. I could see it was a simple task to remove the sanding head. I didn’t have the ability to remake it in the same fashion, so I decided to convert it into a standard sanding pad for use in power rotary tools.
(Saint Paul, February 21, 2018)-The American Association of Woodturners (AAW) is pleased to announce that its Board of Directors has rededicated Woodturning FUNdamentals, AAW’s digital publication for new and beginning woodturners, and appointed John Kelsey as its new editor. The online periodical will continue to help newer turners build foundational woodturning expertise and skills, serving as an authoritative, practical, and pertinent guide to learning the art and craft of woodturning. […]
|started with the bottom pull out front|
|less than a 32nd overhang on both sides|
|marked the screws onto the dolly|
|I was right|
|not giving me a warm and fuzzy|
|marking how much this overhangs the drawer|
|didn't overhang by much|
In hindsight, if I had started at the top and worked down, I wouldn't have had this problem. I would have fitted each of the two drawers and not have had to remove them. I could have then marked and set the big one and not have had to remove it neither. I started with the bottom one because I thought it would be the most difficult one to do.
|proving myself right|
|the top drawer|
|first look see|
|it'll fit under the workbench|
|found 3 shiny brass handles|
Not a deal breaker but I should have put the drawer opening on the other side of the cabinet. One side is 3" less than the other. The drawer openings are on the short side. If I had put it on the long side I wouldn't have the overhang past the end of the workbench.
Did you know that King Tut was buried with 145 loincloths?
That carving pattern I worked on the other day https://pfollansbee.wordpress.com/2018/02/19/carved-arcading/ is very common, except in my work & my photo files! I have rarely used it, but that will change; I’m planning to take a whack at a few versions of it. Here’s what mine was generally based on, a walnut box, made c. 1600-1610. London? This is the drawer front to the box…I’d say maybe 4″ high. Look how much detail is crammed into a small space.arcading
This one was sent to me by a reader of the blog – I know, because I’ve never been to Suffolk. Simple version, cut very well.Suffolk arcading
A few years back I had 2 workshops in England. Jon Bayes attended one, and this is his version of that carving in progress. https://www.riversjoinery.co.uk/workshop
Jon Bayes’ arcading
Here’s a row of it, over some nice spindles in a church in Great Durnford, Wiltshire.Great Durnford, Wiltshire
A wainscot chair now in the Merchant’s House in Marlborough, Wiltshire. Even has the pattern upside-down.wainscot chair Merchant’s House
One for the dish-people. V&A in London:
It’s as old as the hills. But so are all the other patterns I know…here it is from Sebastiano Serlio’s 16th century book on architecture:
Same book, different section. This time a fireplace/hearth:
I’ve seen it on boxes quite often, or the top rail of a chest. Here’s one more from a book called “A Discourse on Boxes of the 16th, 17th & 18th Centuries” by Andrew Coneybeare. Nice detail shots of carving in that book. Published in 1992 by Rosca Publications, Worcestershire. Like the first one, look at all the detail jammed into a tiny space. The other versions seem blank…
I remember learning its name as “nulling” but I see no reference to that anywhere. Harris’ Illustrated Dictionary of Historic Architecture had a definition of nulling with no illustration. Said it was part of a molding. Coneybeare cited just above calls it “fluting.” Makes some sense. I’ve called it “arcading” but my kids thought I was talking about the crazy places with video games and noisy rides. So now I don’t talk about it.
Since our first-ever convening of the International Ripple Molding Association last spring JohnH has been an enthusiastic fellow traveler along this road, and once he got home he started building his own following the instructions of Roubo as closely as practicable.
Inasmuch as he had it finished and working I asked him to bring it with us to Williamsburg, since I had already asked him to be with me on stage when we were demonstrating Winterthur Museum’s ripple cutter made by my longtime friend and colleague Cor van Horne.
While demonstrating we were able only to get the Winterthur machine before we ran out of time, but we arranged for John’s machine to be on display out in the atrium of the museum.
There was a great deal of interest, including mine, and it would not surprise me to learn of several copies being made in the world of historic furniture making. I know that one will begin to take shape in The Barn in the not too distant future.
In addition, as John and I continue to develop our designs and facility in building these elegant little machines, we decided to offer a workshop on building your own ripple molding cutter at The Barn in late July 2019.
Check for flatness with winding sticks. Determine areas that need to be planed down. Plane the surface with a jack plane. Use a toothed plane blade to add roughness to the top. Go over the surface with 36 grit sandpaper on a random orbit sander. Shawn Graham of Worth Effort Woodworking, shared a video on YouTube detailing his approach to flattening and preparing a workbench top. I know that many […]